Help Center: Popular FAQs about Aerogen products

Popular questions

What medications can be used with Aerogen Solo, Pro & Ultra?

Aerogen Solo, Pro and Ultra can nebulise physician-prescribed medications for inhalation which are approved for use with a general purpose nebuliser.

For more information on specific drugs and dosages please contact our Clinical team at or within USA/Canada

Should I adjust the drug dosage when I’m using the Aerogen Solo/Pro?

Aerogen Solo/Pro can be used to nebulise all physician-prescribed drugs approved for use with a general-purpose nebuliser.

Aerogen Ltd cannot provide specific advice on medication dose as it does not have regulatory approvals for drug/device combinations at this time. Information on drug dosing with specific nebulisers must be sourced from the manufacturer’s approved prescribing information for the inhaled formulation.

Should you require information regarding published clinical research for nebulisation of specific medications with Aerogen devices, please contact our Clinical Team directly at or within USA/Canada

It is recognised that physicians prescribe medications for nebulization that are not approved for use with a general purpose nebulizer based on their perceived clinical need and the Risk:Benefit Ratio for the patient. This is classified as ‘off label’ use of those medications: Aerogen Ltd cannot and does not promote ‘off label’ use of our devices.

Does humidification affect the aerosol drug particles?

Many bench models show increased inhaled dose with dry gas, from pMDI, jet nebuliser, ultrasonic and vibrating mesh nebulisers1. However, Lin et al., (2009) also showed that if you turn off the humidifier for 30 minutes, the inhaled dose was not increased2. Cold dry air can cause bronchospasm, and the majority of drugs given on the ventilator are bronchodilators, so it does not make much sense to turn off the humidifier (creating bronchospasm) to give more bronchodilator3. The biggest risk is forgetting to turn the humidifier back on after the treatment.

Is the drug effected if it causes discolouration of the water in a humidifier?

Occasionally, there can be a change in the colour of the water in the heated humidifier, for example adrenalin/ epinephrine and Ipratropium bromide/salbutamol can turn the water brown. Any medication which rains out in the chamber will not be aerosolised. Saeed et al., (2017) investigated the chemical stability of specific drugs after incubation at 50oC for 7 days to mimic a humidifier chamber. All drugs retained their integrity with the exception of acetyl cysteine, which had an additional peak in the HPLC chromatogram4.

If the physician is concerned the Aerogen Solo may also be placed at the wye. Please see articles which show deposition rates in these different positions1,5,6.

Does a heated humidifier water bath affect the drug composition?

Saeed et al., (2017) investigated the chemical stability of specific drugs after incubation at 50oC for 7 days to mimic a humidifier chamber. All drugs retained their integrity with the exception of acetyl cysteine, which had an additional peak in the HPLC chromatogram4.

What is rain-out and is this aerosolised drug?

Rainout is usually condensation of humidified gas and to a lesser extent aerosolised drug that deposits as droplets within the breathing circuit. Drug in the form of rain-out will not be aerosolised and inhaled by the patient.

How do you remove residue in the chamber after nebulisation of viscous drugs?

In order to remove any residues of viscous drugs you can nebulise a few drops of normal saline.

What effect does bias ventilator flow have on aerosol output and deposition?

In vitro studies by Ari et al., (2010) assessing aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation in the presence of bias flow determined that you receive optimal deposition if you place the nebuliser pre humidifier. In the absence of bias flow, optimal deposition was observed when the nebuliser was placed at or close to the wye1, 5. Berlinski & Willis (2013) demonstrated in a paediatric model, that in the presence of bias flow, nebulisers were more effective when placed back at the humidifier as compared to closer to the wye6.

Can you use a Heat and Moisture Exchanger (with filter) (HME/HMEf) while delivering aerosol with the Aerogen Solo?

The Aerogen Solo can be used with a HME/HMEf which may contain a filter. Only an HME/HMEf approved for use with a nebuliser should be used. Follow the HME/HMEf manufacturer instructions regarding use with a nebuliser. Ensure the combination of nebuliser, T-piece and HME/HMEf volumes are suitable for the tidal volume being delivered, especially with small tidal volumes, for example, small children.

Since the Aerogen nebulisers and ultrasonic nebulisers have pretty similar deposition percentages, what are the advantages/disadvantages?

The main disadvantage of the ultrasonic nebulisers is that heat is generated in the process of producing aerosol, this can break down complex proteins in some of the inhaled medications8. In addition, ultrasonic nebulisers (USN) are not recommended for administration of suspensions such as Pulmicort (Budesonide)8.

They show similar aerosol delivery performance in an adult model when placed in the inspiratory limb at the wye and back at the humidifier when there is no bias used1. In a paediatric model with bias flow, the Aerogen Solo performed better than an ultrasonic when placed on the humidifier, similar deposition was observed at the wye6. Both ultrasonic nebulisers and Aerogen have controllers that drive them – but the ultrasonic nebuliser’s controller is bigger, bulkier and heavier. The Ultrasonic has a higher residual volume left after nebulisation compared to Aerogen which is minimal8. The ultrasonic has a reservoir that is positioned below the ventilator circuit whereby contaminated fluids in the circuit can more readily enter the nebuliser8.

Can you deliver an effective dose with the Aerogen Solo to a paediatric patient during HFNC?

Several in vitro studies have evaluated inhaled dose of albuterol/ salbutamol during HFNC. Reminiac et al., (2017) recently published an article assessing aerosol deposition in a toddler simulated breathing model and an animal model of a new born8. They demonstrated that using the Aerogen Solo inline during HFNC (attached to the humidifier) can provide similar aerosol deposition to using a jet nebuliser independent of the HFNC system. When the jet nebuliser was used with a mask over the HFNC cannula or inline, the results were minimal. Therefore, Aerogen provides a similar dose to the patient with the added benefit of providing HFNC at the same time. In addition, Li et al., (2019) published a study assessing inhaled dose during HFNC in both an infant (5kg) and toddler (15kg) model9. The Aerogen Solo was placed at both the inlet of the humidifier and proximal to the patient. Inhaled dose was higher when the Aerogen Solo was placed on the inlet of the humidifier in most settings and also when the gas flow was below the patient’s inspiratory flow. Inhaled dose decreased as gas flow decreased. The author noted that rain-out in the nasal prongs was increased when the Aerogen Solo was placed closer to the patient and it was difficult to keep the Aerogen Solo upright. It’s important to note that the Aerogen Solo is approved for placement on the dry side of the humidifier10.

Can you deliver an effective dose with the Aerogen Solo to an adult patient during HFNC?

The lung dose during HFNC is affected by the flow rate. At lower flow rates, a higher inhaled mass is available. Alcoforado et al., (2016) performed an imaging study which demonstrated that at flow rates of 10-50L/min, between 2-12% lung dose can be achieved where 3.76% of the aerosol dose is available at 30L/min11. Flow rate does affect aerosol deposition and lower flow rates will provide higher lung dose. Reminiac et al. studied the effect of HFNC with the AIRVO in patients with documented airflow obstruction, they suggested that using the Aerogen Solo in line (using the AIRVO adapter) at 30L/min did produce significant bronchodilation similar to using a standard jet nebuliser without HFNC. In addition tolerance and comfort were comparable between the two groups12.

Do different ventilator parameters affect Aerogen Solo performance?

Changes in bias flow can affect aerosol delivery as shown by Ari et al., 20105. Numerous other factors can affect aerosol delivery with mechanically ventilated patients including: inspiratory times, inspiratory pauses, minute ventilation, inspiratory waveform, ventilation mode, duty cycle, respiratory rate and breath triggering13. There seems to be no impact on aerosol delivery with different tidal volumes in paediatric models14.

What should I do if crystals form in the Aerogen Solo/Aerogen Pro?

If crystallization is observed in the Aerogen Solo/Aerogen Pro, Aerogen recommend to aerosolise a few drops of saline to clear any residual crystallization.


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